Deviance is an abnormal act, the divergence from usual or accepted standard or norm in society. It also refers to the violation of social norms. The people who have capacity for manipulation and their cruelty show devastating consequences for the people around them are said to be deviant. The major problem facing by many of the societies is that how normal people deviate from their normal trend and show their divergent actions.
The main reason for such people is the way of their socialization, the way they grew up and their family background. Family is the first place of their socialization. Sometimes, children grew up in such conditions in which they always have to face conflicts that lead to anxiety and people show deviant act. The failure of socialization can even lead to juvenile delinquency, behaviours that stray from the legal norm and fall under criminal law sanctions so that a part of these minors end up the supervision of probation services or worse in the prison system.
Educational institutions which bring the people on same string also the main cause of social degradation. Education is the main stimulus for social capital i.e. an environment for deviation because it unites the people from different areas having different social backgrounds, family impact, value and status. These groups affect the individuals through their peer contacts and connections. The people are disappointed by economic situation and political elite in the country. Education is the also the main factor for social capital and mobility. It is the base for different deviations as dropping out, violence, drugs etc.
Morality is one of the most important social regulator. There is the general morality common to all individuals that leads to collectivity. Apart from this, each individual also has its own moral conscience. It also changes from time to time and also changes according to the society. When we consider the example of wearing clad clothes, it is permitted in some countries like U.S.A, Europe while moving towards developing countries like Pakistan, India etc it is considered as a deviant act
Moreover, religion is also the factor that moves toward deviance. Every religion in this world has its consequences which distinguish it from other religions of the world. Sketching tattoo is not allowed in some religion and the people who are fond of it will consider as deviant people according to the religion. There are also some other reasons that cause the people to deviate accordingly.
In addition to this, poverty is also a motivator and a risk for sign of deviant behaviour. By accepting poverty, it experienced as a sign of negative difference in their social status, comparing it to that of their peer group which has a detrimental impact on their future life.
The modern dimension of the communication transforms audience. Virtual communication in some cases unwraps deviant behavior. People have a need to validate their opinion to the one which is most popular. This becomes a fact with the support by traditional media and internet. Young people spend more time in the Internet and use social network for impressing yourself without censure. But this place can become a risky and can provide deviant idea, which in some moment can transform people’s opinion and can make them react in untypical and unexpected ways.
Furthermore, the development of human society has been accompanied by social problems of different nature and dimensions. By entering into this stages, contributes to the deepening of the existing problems (poverty, crime, etc.) and the emergence of new ones (prevalence of drug dependence, corruption, etc.) and it is also the deviant act.
Psychological issues also lead to the maintenance of divergent act. The people who are suffering from severe psychological mental conditions leave extraordinary impact on the society. Depression is the main common example. Environment friendly conditions should be provided to them.
Deviance has not always seen as negative, it can be positive in some aspects. For example when people show deviant behaviour, it brings the society under one umbrella. The whole society unites and shows their opposition for such divergent act. It is the positive act of creating change within a specific area of a social norm.
It can be positive when people normalize it, I do not mean that people normalize it to be a normal act but when they normalize it, it helps to individuals who practicing it and it can lead to decriminalization.
Moreover, the example of Franklein Rosa Park, when she was sitting in a bus and refused to give up her seat for the white people. At that time it was considered for brown people to give all of their rights to white people because they are considered as superior to all. When she refused to give up, that was the actual culmination of civil right movement as she deviate from the normal behavior and her deviance was fruitful. Now the Americans and Africans are freely to marry each other. There are also the common public places like schools, parks etc.
Positive deviance is challenging, time consuming and can be a bit messy as the community come to terms with change. It has merit when all the community members are focused on the issue of wanting change and open to try what the minority are doing. This is no doubt is difficult because often human behaviour leans towards social norms and is skeptical about change. Positive deviance has merit but is complex and loaded with challenges.
We need an entire nationwide project to understand how they do, what they do, how they make it possible to withstand incentives to either over treat or down treat and spread those lessons everywhere.